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New LNK attack tied to Higaisa APT discovered

Çağlar Arlı      -    11 Views

New LNK attack tied to Higaisa APT discovered

This post was authored by Hossein Jazi and Jérôme Segura

On May 29th, we identified an attack that we believe is part of a new campaign from an Advanced Persistent Threat actor known as Higaisa. The Higaisa APT is believed to be tied to the Korean peninsula, and was first disclosed by Tencent Security Threat Intelligence Center in early 2019.

The group’s activities go back to at least 2016 and include the use of Trojans such as Gh0st and PlugX, as well as mobile malware. Its targets include government officials and human rights organizations, as well as other entities related to North Korea.

In this latest incident, Higaisa used a malicious shortcut file ultimately responsible for creating a multi-stage attack that consists of several malicious scripts, payloads and decoy PDF documents.


The threat actors used a malicious LNK file bundled within an archive file which was most likely distributed via spear-phishing.

We were able to identify two variants of this campaign that possibly have been distributed between May 12th and 31st:

  • “CV_Colliers.rar”
  • “Project link and New copyright policy.rar”

Both RAR archives bundle two malicious LNK files. In the newer variant (CV_Colliers.rar), the LNK files are disguised as a Curriculum Vitae (CV) and International English Language Testing System (IELTS) exam results. The older one (Project link and New copyright policy.rar) seems to target product teams that are using zeplin.io.

The following shows the overall process flow when executing the malicious LNK file.

Figure 1: Process graph

LNK file

The LNK file contains a list of commands that will be executed upon running, and a blob that is a base64 encoded compressed payload. Here is the list of commands that will be executed:

Figure 2: Malicious lnk commands
  • Copy content of the LNK file into “g4ZokyumB2DC4.tmp” in %APPDATA% temp directory.
  • Copy content of “certutil.exe” into “gosia.exe” ( “*ertu*.exe is used to bypass security detection).
  • Look for the base64 blob using “findstr.exe” and write it to “cSi1rouy4.tmp”.
  • Decode content of “cSi1rouy4.tmp” using “gosia.exe -decode” (certutil.exe -decode) and write it to “o423DFDS4.tmp”.
  • Decompress content of “o423DFDS4.tmp” in temp directory along with a decoy PDF document using “expand.exe -F:*” (Figure 3) .
  • Copy “66DF33DFG.tmp” and “34fDKfSD38.js” files into “C:\Users\Public\Downloads” directory.
  • Execute the JS file by calling Wscript.
  • Open the decoy document.
Figure 3: Content of the “o423DFDS4.tmp” cab file

The list of commands executed by this LNK shortcut is the same as the one reported by Anomali on the Higasia Covid-19 campaign. The only difference is the name of the tmp files and name of certutil.exe which in this new case is “gosia.exe”, while in the March campaign the name was “mosia.exe”.

Both LNK files embedded within the archive are executing similar commands with the different Command and Control (C&C) configurations. Running each of them would show a different decoy document.

Figure 4: CV Decoy document
Figure 5: IELTS test result decoy document

JS file

The JavaScript file performs the following commands:

  • Create “d3reEW.exe” in “C:\Users\Public\Downloads” and store “cmd /c ipconfig” in it.
  • Execute the dropped “svchast.exe”.
  • Copy “svchhast.exe” into startup directory and rename it as “officeupdate.exe”.
  • Add “officeupdate.exe” to scheduled tasks.
  • Send a POST request to a hardcoded URL with “d3reEW.exe” as data.
Figure 6: JS content
Figure7: POST request


Svchast.exe is a small loader that loads the content of the shellcode stored in “63DF3DFG.tmp”.

Figure 8: Main function of svchast.exe

In fact, this shellcode is a wrapper around the final shellcode. It performs some checks and then calls the final shellcode.

Figure 9: Calling final shellcode

The final shellcode dynamically resolves the imports and allocates memory for the content that will be executed.

Figure 10: Resolving the imports
Figure 11: Allocate memory for new thread

Finally it calls “CreateThread” to create a thread within its memory space to make HTTPS requests to its C&C server.

Figure 11: CreateThread

At the time of analysis, the server was down so we weren’t able to clearly identify the ultimate goal of this attack.

Chaining techniques for evasion

While most malware campaigns use a simple decoy document that typically retrieves a malware payload, more advanced attackers will often try unconventional means to infect their victims.

We reproduced this attack in our lab using an email as the infection vector, as we surmise that victims were spear-phished. Malwarebytes (in this case the Nebula business version) stopped the LNK file execution from WinRAR and therefore completely stopped the attack.



Project link and New copyright policy.rar

Curriculum Vitae_WANG LEI_Hong Kong Polytechnic University.pdf.lnk

Tokbox icon – Odds and Ends – iOS – Zeplin.lnk

International English Language Testing System certificate.pdf.lnk

Curriculum Vitae_WANG LEI_Hong Kong Polytechnic University.pdf.lnk

Conversations – iOS – Swipe Icons – Zeplin.lnk

C2 domains (ipconfig exfiltration)

C2s used by svchast.exe

MITRE ATT&CK techniques

ExecutionT1059Command-Line InterfaceStarts CMD.EXE for commands (WinRAR.exe, wscript.exe) execution
T1106Execution through APIApplication (AcroRd32.exe) launched itself
T1053Scheduled TaskLoads the Task Scheduler DLL interface (Officeupdate.exe)
T1064ScriptingExecutes scripts (34fDFkfSD38.js)
T1204User ExecutionManual execution by user (opening LNK file)
PersistenceT1060Registry Run Keys / Startup FolderWrites to a start menu file (Officeupdate.exe)
T1053Scheduled TaskUses Task Scheduler to run other applications (Officeupdate.exe)
Privilege EscalationT1053Scheduled TaskUses Task Scheduler to run other applications (Officeupdate.exe)
Defense EvasionT1064ScriptingExecutes scripts (34fDFkfSD38.js)
T1140Deobfuscate/Decode Files or Informationcertutil to decode Base64 binaries, expand.exe to decompress a CAB file
DiscoveryT1012Query RegistryReads the machine GUID from the registry
T1082System Information DiscoveryReads the machine GUID from the registry
T1016System Network Configuration DiscoveryUses IPCONFIG.EXE to discover IP address

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